Introduction: Hunter’s elements of effective instruction were not designed as a checklist to be completed each class period. Completing the following steps in each class period is NOT the purpose of instruction. The purpose of instructional time, whether the time frame is one period or a sequence of periods, is for students to experience a series of elements that will result in the achievement of the stated objectives and standards. Some of the elements listed below may occur many times or not at all during a “class period”, and assessment should be on-going during the instructional period.

During the next few months, we will feature each of the elements in detail.

(See the link at the bottom of this page for the element currently featured.)

1. Objectives & Standards: The teacher should know what OBJECTIVES and STANDARDS of performance are to be expected, and the pupils should be informed about these objectives and standards.

2. Set: This purpose of this element is to “get” and “focus” student attention to the lesson. The teacher literally attempts to create receptive minds.

3. Teaching: This element includes the components of input, modeling, and checking for understanding. Each of these components can incorporate a multitude of method and techniques.

4. Guided Practice: This is an opportunity for students to grasp and develop the concept through participation in activity or exercise. This element is most effective if students are continuously monitored by the teacher for the purposes of time-on-task and assessment of learning. Immediate feedback (peer or teacher) is powerful at this point in the lesson.

5. Closure: This purpose of this element is to help students “bring things together in their own minds”. Good closure allows the brain to secure the “parts” of the concept or skill as a “whole”. It’s similar to the experience of stepping back and gazing at the whole picture created when the final piece of a puzzle is in place!

6. Independent Practice: This primary purpose of this element is to reinforce the content or skill that was mastered in the lesson. Independent practice of the concept or skill should continue over time and be applied to as many relevant situations as possible. In other words, independent practice should include use of the concept or skill in a context other than the one in which it was learned.


 Guided Practice

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